Journal of South Architecture

Construction and Spatial-Temporal Characteristic Analysis of the Carbon Atlas of Low-Carbon Villages in the Yangtze River Delta

WUYiqun, WANGZhu, ZHUXiaoqing, YUHuifang, JIASuer·Abula


Countryside is an integral part of China's social and economic systems. For a long time, the continuous growth of rural carbon emissions has led to a series of social, economic and ecological consequences. Carbon emission reduction has become a critical task for rural revitalization and sustainable development in China. Existing studies on low-carbon assessment mainly focus on urban areas, resulting in limited studies on rural areas. What's more, most of the planning strategies for low-carbon villages are also based on subjective evaluation and qualitative analysis, lacking support from quantitative simulation. Combining relevant theories, the concept of a rural "carbon atlas" was proposed in this study. The current rural carbon emissions and mathematics, graphics, and rationales of the temporal-spatial evolutionary characteristics were investigated using the GIS system as the technical platform for information storage and processing. The spatial domain of carbon emission units based on microscopic residential sites, factories and markets was defined and investigated. Carbon emissions of each unit were estimated according to energy consumptions for life, production and transportation. Later, carbon emissions were expressed and presented visually within the "atlas". Meanwhile, temporal and spatial distribution patterns of carbon emissions in various types of rural areas dominated by different industries were analyzed to provide resources and guidelines for building and planning low-carbon countryside and villages.
An empirical study was undertaken on four different village types dominated by different industries in the Yangtze River Delta. Results show that the rural carbon atlas has apparent characteristics of tendentious distribution, periodical changes, and typified structures:
(1) Different village types have different regional tendencies of high carbon emission. This phenomenon is most evident in industrial villages, where most of the carbon emissions happen in large factories or family workshops with large homestead areas. Traditional fishing and agricultural villages are the least representative in this regard because rural industries are mainly small fishing and agricultural families, and the industrial link among families is weak. (2) Due to the industry's cyclical nature, the fluctuation of carbon emissions in different types of villages is significantly different. Since the leisure tourism industry is greatly affected by festivals and seasons, the carbon emissions in leisure tourism villages fluctuate the most. Carbon emission of professional markets is the most stable, which is attributed to their immunity to seasonal and climatic changes. (3) The rural carbon emission map has prominent typified structural characteristics, including the scattered homogeneous pattern (traditional fishing and agricultural village), the group infiltration pattern (industrial production village), the dissipative fragmentation pattern (leisure tourism village), and the kernel domain recursive pattern (professional market village). Different industrial types lead to noticeable regional differences in the temporal-spatial characteristics and trends of carbon atlas. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an overall optimization strategy and mechanism model. The outcomes from the current study explore the method and practical application of a rural carbon emission atlas, yet more extensive research exploring various facets of the atlas are still required.


low-carbon villages; carbon atlas; spatial-temporal characteristic; the Yangtze River Delta

Full Text:



LENG Xue.Research on the Relationship between Carbon Emissions and China's Economic Development[D].Shanghai: Fudan University, 2012.

MA Mingyi,ZHENG Junwei,MA Tao.Spatiotemporal Characteristics of the Impact of New Urbanization on China’s Carbon Dioxide from a Multi-dimensional Perspective[J].Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2021,41(6):1- 13.

JIA Junmin,GE Wenguang.Investigation on the Concept of Agriculture, Rural Areas and Farmers and the Formulation of the Issue[J]. China Rural Survey, 2013(5):86-94.

ZHAI Zhenwu.Population Opportunities and Challenges for High-quality Development in the New Era-Interpretation of the Seventh National Census Communiqué[EB/OL].[2021- 05-12].

National Bureau of Statistics. 2019 China Statistical Yearbook[R].2020.

QIU Jiayue.Construction of Low Carbon Community in Developed Villages: A Case Study of Zhejiang Province [D]. Hangzhou:Zhejiang University of Technology, 2019.

WANG Zhu, XIANG Yue,WU Yingying.Consensus, Dilemma and Strategy: A Study on Low-carbon Rural Construction in Yangtze River Delta Region[J].New Architecture, 2016(4):33-39.

WU Yingying, WANG Zhu,ZHU Xiaoqing.Discuss on the Research Progress, Connotation and Construction Path of Low-carbon Rural Community[J]. Huazhong Architecture, 2016,34(6):26-30.

WU Ning,LI Wangming,FENG Zhen,et al.A Parametric Evaluation Model of the Carbon Resource Aiming at Rural Land Planning[J].Economic Geography, 2015,35(3):9-15.

DONG Weiwei.The Theory,Questions and Analysis of Strategies on Building Low-carbon Village on Case Study of Suburn-building of Zhejiang Jinhua[D].Jinhua:Zhejiang Normal University, 2013.

LEI Yanhui,WANG Qi.Research on the Zero Energy Development in Beddington,UK[J].City House, 2020,27(5):54-58.

DUAN Muxian,TANG Xiaolan.Research and Thinking on the Development of Korean Folk Village[J].Urban Planning International, 2016,31(3):138-142.

GU Xiaoling.On the Essence and Enlightenment of the Architecture-Thinking from"What is the Architecture"to "How to Build the Architecture"[J]. Architecture&Culture, 2013(3):91-92.

LUO Xiaoyu.Study on Low-carbon Ecological Evaluation System of Villages Based on Carbon Emission Accounting[D]. Hangzhou: Zhejiang University,2017.

WANG Changbo,ZHANG Lixiao,LI Guangsheng.Carbon Emission Accounting from Rural Energy consumption in China[J]. Transactions of the CSAE.2011(S1):6-15.

DUAN Degang,LIU Huimin,GAO Yuan.Research on the Spatial Pattern of China’s Rural Energy Carbon Emissions from the Low-carbon Perspective[J].Energy of China, 2015,37(7):28-34.

WU Yingying.Practise Research and Construction Method on the Low-carbon Adaptability of Spatial Form in Rural Community[M].Nanjing: Southeast University Press, 2017:24-26.

FAN Liyang.Space Design Strategies and Evaluation Methods for Low Carbon Rural Area in Yangtze River Delta Region[D]. Hangzhou: Zhejiang University,2017.

SHI Xiusong.Conception and Establishing Exploration of Industry Agglomeration Spatial Mapping[J].Geomatics & Spatial Information Technology, 2012,32(12): 06-11.

WANG Chenye. Research on Land Use Changes Evaluation and Optimization Supported by Eco-environment Information Atlas-Spatial Analysis Technique in Songnen plain[D]. Jilin: Doctoral Dissertation of Jilin University,2009.

CHEN Shupeng.Graphic Methodology for Geo-Information Science[M]. Beijing: The Commercial Press, 2001:12.

LI Xin, YI Lingjie.Spatial Gene Mapping of the Dong Settlement in Tongdao,Hunan[J].South Architecture, 2020(2):89-96.

WU Yiqun,ZHU Xiaoqing,WANG Zhu,et al.Construction and Optimization Strategy of Rural Carbon Map Based on the Perspective of Work-Live Cells-A Case Study of Developed Villages in Zhejiang Province[J].Journal of Human Settlements in West China, 2018,33(6):116-120.

WANG Yang,ZHAO Wanmin.On the"Flow-Form" Theory and Geo- info Spectrum Connotation for Spatial Planning Form the Perspective of Sciences of Human Settlement[J]. Urbanism and Architecture,2017(24):6-10.

ZHOU Jun,XU Jiangang.A Preliminary Discussion on Town- Information Atlas[J].Scientia Geographica Sinica,2002, 22(3): 325-330.

ZHANG Rongtian.Assessment of Rurality and Analysis of Spatial Pattern in Yangtze River Delta during Transition Period[J].Research of Agricultural Modernization, 2014,35(2):204-208.

ZHANG Rongtian,JIAO Huafu,ZHANG Xiaolin.Rural Development Types and Rurality in the Yangtze River Delta[J]. Journal of Nanjing Normal University(Natural Science Edition), 2014,37(3):132-136.

IPCC.2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change[EB/OL].Bracknell, U.K., 2006. https://www.ipcc-

National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Energy Statistical Yearbook2020[M].China Statistics Press, 2020.

Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People's Republic of China. 2019 Baseline Emission Factors for Regional Power Grids in China.[EB/OL]. [2020-12-29].

GU Chaolin. Research on Urban Carbon Emissions Inventory and its Application in Planning[J]. South Architecture, 2013(4):4-12.

GUO Hongyu, CAI Yunnan, JIN Qi,et al. Low-carbon Urban Planning Based on Urban Greenhouse Gas Inventories[J]. South Architecture,2015(1):108-113.

WENG Yifeng,Lǖ Bin,LU Xiaojun.Research on Rural Spatial Development in the View of Property Right Relationship: A Case Study on Yangshan Town, Wuxi City,Jiangsu Province[J]. Urban Planning, 2014,38(10):51-58.

ZHU Xiaoqing, WU Yiqun, WENG Jiantao, el al. Paradigm and spatial pattern analysis of island settlements based on mixed-use development: A case study of Zhoushan work-live community[J].Geographical Research, 2017,36(8):1543-1556.

XUE Lei,LI Qi,LIU Shuai.Research on the small-scale spatial distribution of urban industrial carbon emissions: A case study of Beijing[J].Geographical Research, 2013,32(07):1188-1198.

ZHU Xiaoqing. The Form Evolvement and Mechanism Analysis of Mixed-Use Settlements Based on the Specialized Market:Empirical Study on Commercial-Residential Community Under the "Yiwu Pattern" of Zhejiang Province[J]. Economic Geography, 2015,35(05):111-117.

WANG Zhu,XU Danhua,QIAN Zhenlan,et al.The Adaptive Strategy of the Rural Industrial and Spatial Construction: A Case Study of Shangping and Xiaping Villages in Suichang County[J].South Architecture, 2019(1):100-106.

ZHAO Wanmin,WANG Yang.Theoretical Construction of Mountain Human Settlements Info-spectrum and its Academic Significance[J]. Urban Planning,2014,38(4):9-16.

ZHANG He,YU Dingyi,WANG Rui,et al.Strategies on County Spatial Structure Planning under the Guidance of Household CO2 Emission Reduction[J].Planners,2020(24): 12-20.



  • There are currently no refbacks.